Chakk Nanaki was founded by Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib and Anandpur Sahib
was established by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib. The boundaries of Chakk Nanaki,
Anandpur Sahtb, Sahota, Lodipur, Mataur, Agampur etc. are not known to
a common man. Only revenue officers (Patwari and Lambaar) know about the
actual boundary ames. In government papers Chakk Nanaki is known as "Chakk"
The square between the present bus stand and Gurdwara Kesgarh Sahib is
the meeting point of Chakk Nanaki, Anandpur Sahib and Lodipur. Gurdwara
Guru De Mahal (Bhora Sahib, Damdama, Takht Sahib and Manji Sahib) are
in the territory of Chakk Nanaki. It was the residence of Guru Tegh Bahadur
Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh Sahib. Gurdwara Sis Ganj is on the border
of Challk Nanaki and Anandpur Sahib. The Bus Stand, Hospital and the Girls
School are in Chakk Nanaki. A part of the saw-mill near Gurdwara Holgarh
Sahib is in the territory of Chakk Nanaki and its boundary wall is within
the boundary of Sahota village. The Milk Bar (near the squares) and the
Sarover (tank) are in Lodipur village. The gard~ adjacent to the police
post Is a part of Chall:k Nanaki. Khalsa High School is in the territory
of villages Sahota, Quilla Anandgarh Sahib Guniwara Shahidi Bagh (under
the management of one group of Nihangs) are situated in the village of
Lodipur. The area around ~sgarh Sahib is a part of Anandpur Sahib. Khalsa
College has been built in the territory of village Mataur. The bridge
over Charan Ganga is a part of Chakk Nanaki. Now all these areas form
the present city of Anandpur Sahib.
The Anandpur zone
has undergone several major changes in the past 334 years (1665 to 1999).
The river Sutlej, which used to flow near Anandgarh fort, has changed
its course and now it flows about seven km away (near Keeratpur Sahib).
"Himaiti" stream, which used to protect Anandpur Sahib from
Mughal invasions, has disappeared. severai otherrainy streams too have
disappeared. A bridge has been built on Charan Ganga rivulet. The hill
on which a tent was put up (Tambu Wali Pahart) on the day of revelation
of Khalsa does not exist any more. Even the hill on which Kesgarh Sahib
shrine has been built is, now, at least ten feet (more than three meters)
lesser In height than it was in 1698. A road has been built to link
Kesgarh Sahib and Anand~arh Sahib. A very large number of new buildings
too have been constructed in and aroundAnandpur Sahib. Today's Anandpur
is alot different from Anandpur Sahib of the eighteenth century. However,
almost all the shrines of the zone have been built at actual sites.
Today, Anandpur Sahib is a tehsil. Its 240 villages include Chakk Nanaki,
Agampur, Sahota, Lodipur, Mianpur, Mataur (Anandpur Sahib zone), Keeratpur
Sahib, Jauwal, Kalyanpur Bhaguwal (Keeratpur zone), Jindbari, Khera,
Kalmot, Nangal (Nangal zone), Kahanpur Khuhi, Nurpur Bedi (Nurpur Bedi
zone) Bajrur, Basali, Chanauli Cflikhtgarh zone) etc. "Guru Ka
Lahore" and Gurdwara Thragarh are a part of Bilaspur district (Himanchal
Pradesh). Though most of the places associated with the history of Anandpur
Sahib are in the territories, of Anandpur Sahib and Keeratpur Sahib
zones but Kalmot, Basali, Bajrur, Bibhaur, Bassi Kalan, Bhattha Sahib,
Chamkaur Sahib, Machhiwara (as well as Machhiwara to Talwandi Sabo)
are situated in other zones. Similarly, Gurdwaras at Gurpalah, Bilaspur,
Nahan, Paonta Sahib, Bhangani, Nadaun, Rivalsar etc are in Himanchal
Pradesh. No Gurdwara has, so far, been built at Ajner, Malalq,ur and
some other places associated with Guru Gobind Singh Sahib's stay at
Anandpur Sahib and his journey from Machhiwara to Dama Kangar.
Anandpur Sahib had a population of a few hundreds at the time of Guru
Gobind Singh Sahib but hundreds of Sikhs used to visit Anandpur Sahib
to make obeisance to Guru Sahib. In the month of March more than twenty
thousand Sikhs used to attend the annual Sikh gathering at Anandpur
Sahib. On the night of December 5 and 6,1675 when Guru Gobind Singh
Sahib finally left Anandpur Sahib, only one person, Bhai Gurbakhsh Das,
was left in the town. After a few years the fatnllies of Gulab Singh
and Sham Singh (great-grandsons of Guru Hargobind Sahib) moved to Anandpur
and lived there.
With the passage of time Anandpur Sahib again
became a prominent Sikh center. At the time of Akali Phula Singh, in
the first decade of the nineteenth century, the family of Bhai Surjan
Singh Sodhi (a descendant of Guru Hargobind Slngh) used to live there.
At that time the population of Anandpur Sahib was less than three thousan~
In 1868, when the first regular census was held, the population of Anandpur
Sahib was 6869. In the first half of the twentieth century its population
remained less than seven thousands. During this period an epidemic spread
through the town and the adjoining villages, resulting into exodus of
most of the population. After 1947, a few Sikh families, which had been
uprooted from the west Punjab (Pakistan), moved to Anandpur Sahib. After
a couple of years the Bhakhra-Nangal-Ganguwal projects added population
of several hundred persons to the town. Today, in 1999, the population
of the municipal area of Anandpur Sahib is around 13000 and there is
no possibility of any extra-ordinary increase in spite of launching
of several new projects in connection with celebrations of the tercentenary
The new projects launched atAnandpur Sahib in
1998-99 are likely to give a new look to the town, but, the city, which
used to beAnandpur Sahib of the period of Guru Sahib may not remain
Thousand years ago,
the Anandpur zone, from Keeraipur Sahib to Nangal, which was known as
"Hathaut" (literally: abode of elephants), was a dense forest
with thick growth of trees and bushes. This jungle-valley was surrounded
by several hill belts, river~Sutlej, Charan Ganga and other rivulets.
It was a home for elephants, lions, bears, wolves and other beasts.
This area, about 50 km in length and 10-12 km in width, did not have
any human population. By fifteenth century most of the beasts had either
been killed or had moved to the upper hills, but, still, people were
afraid of visiting this area. It was only in June 1665 when Guru Tegh
Bahadur Sahib founded the town of Chakk Nanaki that people began visiting
this area Guru Sahib turned this haunting forest into a fine place.
The area where people did not dare to enter even during daytime became
a great centre of spirltuaiism, learning and arts. Before 1665 the zone
of Anandpur Sahib had no mention in history. Accofding to a local myth
a giant named Makho used to live here. At that time this place was known
as Makhowal. According to another tradition two brothers named Makho
and Mato were the chiefs of this are~ They founded the villages of Makhowai
and Mataur. Both were cruel chiefs. As a result, residents of these
areas began moving to far-off places and finally both the village were
deserted. But, there is no historical evidence to prove these 'stories'.
In 1665, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib laid the foundation of Chakk Nanaki
at the top of the mound known as ruins of Makhowal.
Today, three villages of Haihaut i.e. Chakk Nanaki, Anandpur Sahib and
Keeratpur Sahib, have special mention in the history of the world. It
is because Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh Sahib had stayed
there. From Anandpur Sahib to Bhattha Sahib (near Ropar), the scene
of furling Khalsa flags, throughout the zone, tells the story of the
State of Guru Sahib. Several hundred Sikhs laid their lives in this
area. The whole of the zone has been immortalized by Guru Sahib, their
families and the Sikh martyrs. It is known as Guruji's Land. And, the
Bilaspur State, which compelled Guru Sahib to abandon Anandpur Sahib,
exists no more. Its capital Bilaspur, too, lies fifty feet (more than
fifteen metres) deep under the waters of the lake named after Guru Gobind
Singh Sahib. The family which wanted to expel the Sikhs from the zone
does not exist any more. The family, the State, the capital have ceased
to be even a political entity.
of Anandpur Sahib:
Sahib is a small town in Ropar district. It is 45 km from Ropar, 97
km from Chandigarh, 9 km from Keeratpur Sahib and 22 km from Nangal.
It is situated on Anibala-Sirhind-Ropar Keeratpur-Nangal rail route.
Anandpur Sahib is a holy city. Two Guru Sahib and families of four Guru
Sahib spent several years in this town. Hundreds of Sikhs embraced martyrdom
in this town. Hence, the whole of town is a spiritual memorial of Guru
Sahib and martyrs. A visitor to this town has a pious duty to observe
special protocol while stepping on the land of martyrs and Masters
Gurdwara Guru De
It was the first building of Chakk Nanaki-Anandpur Sahib. The foundation
stone of Chakk Nanaki was laid here. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib, Mata Nanaki,
Mata Jit Kaur, Mata Sunder Kaur, Mata Sahib Kaur and Sahibzadas of Guru
Sahib had been living here. Sahibzada Zujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and
Fateh Singh were born here. Gurdwara Bhora Sahib, Manji Sahib and Damdama
Sahib are a part of the Guru De Mahal complex.
Gurdwara Bhora Sahib
Here Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib used to sit for meditation and for composing
Gurdwara Manji Sahib
This was a part of Guru De Mahal complex. It was the Diwan-i-Aam. Here,
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib used to hold congregations and address the Sikhs.
It was here that Bhal Kirpa Ram Dutt presented 16 Kashmiri Bratirnins
(on May 25,1675) who requested Guru Sahib to save them from forcible
conversion by the newly appointed governor of Kashmir.
It is known as Gurdwara Thkht Sahib as well. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
used to perform the flinctions of Akal Thkht Sahib from this place.
It was Diwane-i-Khas. It was also the court of Guru Sahib. Here, Gun~
Sahib used to receive representatives of different States as well as
important guests. Here, Guru Gobind Singh Sahib was installed as Tenth
Nanak on July 8,1675. In March 1698, when Guru Sahib summoned all the
Masand~ at Anandpur Sahib, they were tried here. This shrine is a part
of the erstwhile Guru De Mahal complex. By the side of this building,
an old well, from the time of Guru Sahib, still exists. The Masands
who had been found guilty were punished here.
Gurdwara Sis Ganj
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib embraced martyrdom in Delhi on November 11,
1675. His head was brought to Chakk Nanaki by Bhai Jaita and his associates.
The cremation of the head of Guru Sahib was held here on November 17,1675.
When Guru Gobind Singh Sahib left Anandpur Sahib, on the night of December
5 and 6,1705, he visited this place and appointed Bhai Gurbakhsh Das
Udasi as caretaker of this shrine and began his final journey. It is
believed that the central pedestal of the shrine is the oldest structure
of Chakk Nanaki-Anandpur Sahib.
Gurdwara Akal Bunga
This Gurdwara is situated exactly opposite to Gurdwara Sis Ganj. Here,
Guru Sahib addressed the Sikhs after the cremation of the head of Guru
Tegh Bahadur Sahib. Guru Sahib asked the Sikhs to bow before the Will
of the Almighty. He told them to be prepared for struggle for freedom
of faith and war against tyranny and injustice.
Gurdwara Manji Sahib/Dumalgark Sahib
This Gurdwara is on the northern side of Kesgarh Sahib. Here, Guru Sahib
used to train his sons. This place was also used as a play ground. Wrestling
and other competitions were also held here.
On November 2,1703 when Ajmer Chand, the ruler of Bilaspur attacked
Anandpur Sahib, Guru Sahib was sitting here under a bunyan tree. In
the battlefield, the Sikhs, under the command of Bhai Maan Singh Nishanchi
(standard bearer), gave a befitting fight to the hill army. During the
battle Bhai Maan Singh was wounded and the Khalsa flag was broken. A
Sikh soldier reported the incident to Guru Sahib. At this Guru Sahib
tore afarra (small piece of cloth) from his Keski (under-turban) and
set it in his turban in the form of a hanging flag. Guru Sahib declared
that in ~ture Khalsa flag shall never fall or get lowered. It will be
a part of the turban of every Sikh leader. At that time some prominent
Sikhs were sittjng near Guru Sahib. All of them tore farras from their
under-turbans and decorated them in their turbans in the form of hanging
flags. Sahibzada Fateh Singh, who was just five years old at that time,
also hung afarra in his turban. Since this incident the tradition of
farra became a part of the turban of every Sikh leaders. Now, this tradition
is no more in practice except with the Nihangs who observe it with religious
fervor. This Gurdwara is known as Dumalgarh also as it owes its name
to Dumala (farra) incident of November 2,1703.
This Gurdwara is on the road between Kesgarh Sahib and Anandgarh Sahib,
in the boundary of village Lodipur. In early days of eighteenth century
there was a big garden here. In 1705, when Bilaspur army put siege to
Anandpur Sahib, a few skirmishes took place here. Several Sikhs sacrificed
their lives in this garden, hence the name Shaheedi Bagh. This shrine
is not under the management of the S.G.P.C.
Gurdwara Mata Jit
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib's first wife Mata Jit Kaur died at Anandpur
Sahib on leecember 5,1700. She was cremated in the outskirts of Chakk-Nanaki
in the boundary of the village of Agamgarh. Some one constructed a platform
at the site where she had been cremated. Later, a Gurdwara was built
by the Sikhs.
The Forts of Anandpur Sahib
Kesgarh Sahib is the central place of Anandpur Sahib. It is also known
as Takht Kesgarh Sahib. After the establishment of Anandpur Sahib, Guru
Sahib used to hold congregations on this hill. Revelation of Khalsa
and first initiation (Khande Di Pahul) took place here. At that time
the hill of Kesgarh Sahib was at least 10-15 feat higher than its present
height. By the side of this hill there stood another hill. It was known
as "Tambu (tent) Wali Pahari" because a special tent was set
up here 6n the day of revelation of Khalsa This hill does not exist
any more. Similarly, there was a long range of small hills extending
from Kesgarh Sahib to Anandgarh fort. In 1973, a road was constructed
to link Kesgarh Sahib and Anandgarh Sahib fort and the hill4ops had
to be leveled.
On the day of revelation
of Khalsa a special congregation was held here. Thousands of Sikhs attended
it. One can presume how much was the space around Kesgarh Sahib from
the fact that all the Sikhs must have seated themselves here at the
time of the revelation ceremony.
Kesgarh Sahib fort
was built in 1699. The hill armies attacked Anandpur Sahib several times
between 1700 and 1705 but never could the invading armies reach Kesgarh
Sahib because it was a very strong fort and before reaching the gates
of this fort the armies had to capture the fort at Thragath, Agamgarh,
Fatehgarh and Anandgarh. This could not happen even once in the history
of Anandpur Sahib. It was only on December 6,1705, when Guru Sahib abandoned
the town, the hill armies entered this fort and demolished it. The Sikhs
could not enter Anandpur Sahib till Baba Banda Singh Bahadur subjugated
the ruler of Bilaspur. The Sikhs had to face another wave of persecution
after the fall of Baba Banda Singh. But, when the Misls became the defacto
rulers of the Sikh homeland, the Sikhs began making frequent visits
to Anandpur Sahib. Baba Baghel Singh of Karorasinghia~Misl, after constructing
Sikh slirines at Delhi, visited Anandpur Sahib in seventeen-eighties
and decided to construct, repalr and renovate
the shrines of this town. In 1812, Mahan Chand, the ruler of Bilaspur,
attacked Anandpur Sahib in order to occupy the city but suffered heavy
losses. Within the next ten years most of the Sikh homeland was under
the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh Misis and the Patiala dynasty
and this meant peace in the Punjab hence Anandpur Sahib was most safe
place for the Sikhs.
After 1820 regular Granthis began serving at Kesgarh Sahib. Historical
sources mention the names of Bhai Karam Singh, Bhai Kharak Singh, Bhal
Budi~ Singh, Bhai Irrran Singh, Bhai Amar Singh etc as the Granthis
of Kesgarh Sahib. For about a century (1820 to 1925) Kesgarh Sahib had
only one Granthi, but after Gurdwarareform movement (1920-25) a"Jathedai"
was appointed here too. This designation was given to Giani Resham Singh,
Giani Partap Singh Mallewal, Jathedar Bir Singh, Master Ajit Singh Ambalvi,
Giani Fauja Singh, Giani Bachitar Sirigh, Jathedar Gurdial Singh Ajnoha,
Jathedar Harcharan Singh Mahalon, Bhai Shawinder Singh, Bhal Balbir
Singh, Bahi Manjit Singh (Prof.) etc.
Historical Relics at Kesgarh Sahib
The central place
of Gurdwara Kesgarh Sahib is the main hall where Guru Granth Sahib has
been installed. In the middle of this hall, behind Guru Granth Sahib,
a small room like rectangular structure has been built where 12 relics
have been placed. These relics are associated with Guru Sahib and the
Sikh maryrs. Among these 12 relics six had been brought by Bhal Gurbakhsh
Singli (Ram Kanwar) from Nander (where Guru Gobind Singh Sahib breathed
his last) and five had been brought from England in 1966.
1. KHANDA (double-edged sword) : It is believed to be the same Khanda
with which Guru Gobind Singh Sahib prepared Amrit (Khande Di Pahul)
on the day of revelation of Khalsa. In 1942, this Khanda was taken to
Akal Takht Sahib to perform initiation ceremony; but, later, in consideration
of Its historical value, it was decided that it should not be used again.
2. KATAAR (dagger): It was Guru Gobind Singh Sahib's dagger. He used
to keep it always on his person. A kataar is very usetul in hand4o-hand
fight. An attack of this dagger meant sure death.
3. SAIF (A kind of sword): It is a double-edged weapon. According to
a source it had been presented to Guru Sahib by Bahadur Shah (the Mughal
emperor). It is believed that this weapon belonged to the Islamic Khahfa
All (the son-in-law of the Muslim prophet H~at Mohammed) and it had
been used by All's sons, Hassan and Hussian. According to this tradltion
this weapon remained with the successors of All who presented it to
Aurangzeb in appreciation of his contribution to the spread and glory
of Islam. After ascension of Bahadur Shah to the Mughal throne it went
into his hands and he, as a token of thakks, presented it to Guru Gobind
4. GUN : This gun had been presented to Guru Gobind Singh Sahib by a
Sildi from Lahore. Guru Sahib had issued a Hukamnama asking the Sikhs
to bring liim gifts of line hoses, weapons and books. In reponse to
this Hukamnama, the Sikhs used to present latest and finest weapons
to Guru Sahib.
5. NAAGNI BARCHHA (serpent-shaped speer) : The blade of this spear is
in the shape of the movement of a female-seepent, hence the name. Its
attack was as severe as the venom of a snake and was likely to cause
sure death. It was Guru Sahib's own spear. On September 1,1700 when
Ajmer Chand's army planned to bring a drunk elephant in order to break
open the main gate of Lohgarh fort, Guru Gobind Singh Sahib asked Bhai
Bachitar Singh to turn the elephant back and gave him this spear. Bhai
Bachitar Singh attacked the drunk elepbant with this spear. The elephant,
severely wounded, ran back and killed and wounded several of the soldiers
of Ajmer Chand's army.
6. KARPA BARCHHA (palm-shaped spear): It is known as Karpa Barchha because
it has a hand-shaped blade. This too was Guru Sahib's own spear. It
was used at least twice. In 1677, the marriage ceremony of Guru Gobind
Singh Sahib was held at Guni-Ka-Lahore (a newly established vrnage,
about 11 km from Anandpur Sahib). At that time there was an acute shortage
of water at Guru-Ka-Lahore. According to a tradition Guru Sahib hit
the earth with Karpa Barchha resulting into three small springs of water.
(now a Sarovar has been built at the site of these springs). This spear
is associated with another important incident. On September 1,1700 when
hill armies attacked Lohgarti fort, Bhai Udey Singh dioped off the head
of Raja leesari Chand (maternal uncle of Ajmer Chand) . He, then, carried
off his head on this spear, to present it to G~mi Sahib. The hill soldiers
shot several arrows to stop Bhai Udey Singh. Some arrows hit the spear.
The marks of arrows on the spear are still visible.
RELICS IN ENGLAND:
7. A big spear.
8. A small spear.
9. A ShamshirA-Tegh (a sword)
10. A Dah-i-Ahni.
11. A Golden qiloit.
12 . A Shield made of skin of a rhinoceros.
ANANDGARH SAHIB FORT
The foundation stone of this fort was laid on March 31,1689. This was
the first fort of Anandpur Sahib. This fort was almost demolished by
the army of Ajmer Chand in December 1705. Several years later, the Sikhs
built a Gurdwara at the site of Anandgarh fort. Later S. Jassa Singh
Ahiuwalla built a Baoli (well with steps descending down to water level)
Anandgarh, like Lohgarti, was a very strong fort. This was sate from
the attacks of the invading armies. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib spent ahout
sixteen years in this fort. On I)ecember 5-6,1705, when Guru Sahib left
Anandpur Sahib for ever, he began his journey from this fort. Anandgarh
fort was the central place of Anandpur Sahib from military point of
view. Arms and ammunitions of the Khalsa army were stored here.
Nowadays, a Gurdwara has been built at the site of the fort. A circular
road has been built on three sides of this Gurdwara. Earlier, by 1985,
one could observe a few signs of the fort of the eighteenth century.
In 1985, a new building was raised on the northern side of the fort,
thus totally eliminating all the signs of the old structure.
Lohgarh fort was the second strongest fort of the Sikhs. It was on the
southern side of the stream. Here, Guru Sahib had set up a factory for
manufacturing arms. The main gate of this fort was very strong. The
hill armies attacked Anandpur Sahib several time but they hesitated
from launching an attack on this fort as they knew that breaking its
gate open was not possible for them. In the last days of August 1700,
the army attacked Taragarh, Agamgarh and Fatehgarh forts on three consecutive
days and suffered heavy losses. Finally, on the fourth day, on September
1,1700, the hill armies attacked this fort. To break open the gate they
brought a drunk elephant. Bhai Bachitar Slngh attacked this elephant
with Naagni spear. The wounded elephant retreated killing and wounding
several soldiers of the hill army. It was here on the same day that
Bhai Udey Singh chopped off the head of Raja Kesari Chand. The hill
army occupied this fort after the exodus of the Sikhs (on the night
of December 5 and 6,1705) and demolished it.
AND HOLGARH FORTS
The third major fort built by Guru Gobind Singh was at Agamgarh village.
According to one source there were two forts on the two sides of Charan
Ganga stream. On the side of Chakk Nanaki it was Holgarh fort and on
the side of the vrnage of Agamgarh it was Agamgarh fort. The other sources
mention that there was only one fort named Holgarh fort, and, as it
was in the village of Agamgarh, it was also known as Agamgarh fort.
Holgarh fort was famous for another reason. It was in front of the gate
of this fort that Guru Sahib used to observe Hola Mahalla celebrations.
On that day wrestling, sword-wielding, arrow-shooting, polo, Gatka (fencing)
and some other martial games and sports competitions were held. Guru
Sahib had begun observing these martial sports on Hola Mahalla in order
to wean the Sikhs away from the silly activity of Holi (spoiling clothes
by pouring liquid or dry colour on each other).
This fort had been built in the territory of village Sahota in order
to defend the town of Chakk Nakaki. When this fort was being built,
Sahibzada Fateh Singli was born; hence the name of the tbrt. On August
30, 1700, when Ajmer Chand's army attacked this fort, one gate of this
fort was still incomplete. In spite of this, the Sikh soldiers fought
bravely and defeated the hill army.
This fort was built in the village of Taragarh, about five km away from
Anandpur Sahib. This fort had been built in order to stop the advances
of the hill armies. This fort stood on the top of a hill from where
one could watch the activities of the Kehlur fort. In the August of
1700, Ajmer Chand's army made its first attack on this fort. By 1985,
there was no Gurdwara here. Now a line building stands at the site of
GURDWARAS OF GURU KA LAHORE
The village Guru Ka Lahore is at a distance of about 11 km from Anandpur
Sahib and about 8 km from Ganguwal. This village had been set up by
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib in 1677 to fulfil the desire of his father-in-law
who had wishes that the marriage ceremony of his daughter should be
performed at Lahore. The marriage of Guru Sahib and Mata Jit Kaur was
held here on June 21,1677. There are four Gurdwaras associated with
memory of Guru Sahib's marriage.
GURDWARA TIRBENI SAHIB
According to a tradition Guru Gobind Singh Sahib struck his Karpa spear
here in the earth resulting into creation of three springs. Later, a
Sarovar (tank) was built at the site. Now a fine Gurdwara has been built
here. The name Tirbeni Sahib refers to three springs, like confluence
of three rivers at Tirveni (Allahabad).
GURDAWARA PAUR SAHIB
This Gurdwara has been built near a spring. According to a tradition
this spring had been created by the stamping of the Paur (hoof) of the
horse of Guru Sahib.
GURDWARA ANAND KARM SAHIB
It has been built at the site where marriage ceremony of Guru Sahib
was performed on June 21,1677. The present structure of the Gurdwara
had been built in 1960s.
GURDWARA SEHRA SAHIB
This Gurdwara has been built in village Bassi, about one km from Guru
Ka Lahore. According to a tradition, here, Guru Sahib tied nuptial garland
on his turban before the marriage party left for Guru Ka Lahore. Some
scholars believe that Guru Sahib did not tie nuptial garland on his
turban and it is the place where the marriage party rested for a while
on their way to Guru-Ka-Lahore.
GURDWARAS at KEERATPUR SAHIB
GURDWARA Keeratpur Sahib
Keeratpur Sahib is about nine km from Anandpur Sahib, on Anandpur-Ropar-Chandigarh
route. The town was founded by Baba Gurditta (son of Guru Hargobind
Sahib) on the tract of land purchased by Guru Sahib from Raja Kalyan
Chand, the ruler of Bilaspur. This tract included portions of the land
belonging to the villages of Jiowal, Kalyanpur, Bhatolian and Bhagguwal.
The foundation stone of the new town was laid down by Baba Sri Chand
on April 23,1624. Guru Hargobind Sahib established his headquarters
here in May 1635. Guru Har Rai Sahib and Guru Harkrishan Sahib were
born here. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh Sahib visited
this town several tiines. Even Guru Nanak Sahib had visited this place
more then a century before the establishment of this town. Several Gurdwaras
have been built at Keeralpur Sahib in memory of Guru Nanak Sahib, Guru
Hargobind Sahib, Guru Har Rai Sahib, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, Baba Gurditta
(son of Guru Hargobind Sahib and father of Guru Har Ral Sahib) , Bibi
Rup Kaur (daughter of Guru Har Ral Sahib) and Baba Sri Chand.
GURDWARA CHARAN KANWAL
This Gurdwara has been built in memory of the visit of Guru Nanak Sahib.
When Guru Nanak Sahib and Bhai Mardana visited this area, Keeratpur
Sahib was not yet in existence and only a few people used to live in
this area When Guru Nanak Sahib reached here Sain Buddhan Shah (who
used to live on a nearby hili), approached Guru Sahib to have a dialogue
with him. He oltered goat milk to Guru Sahib and Bhai Mardana. Tomb
of Sain Buddhan Shah has been built on the hill where he used to live.
The managers of this tomb have propagated that those Sikhs who visit
Keerarpur Sahib have an obligation to visit the tomb of the Sain; otherwise
their pilgrimage won't bear any fruit. This is false propaganda In fact,
a Sikh must not bow before a grave, tomb, memorial or shrine or worship-places
belonging to other religions.
GURDWARA SHISH MAHAL
After the laying of foundation stone of Keeratpur Sahib, the residence
of Baba Gurditta was the first building to be erected. Gurdwara Shish
Mahal has been built at the site of the residence of Baba Gurditt~ In
May 1635 when Guru Hargobind Sahib moved to Keeratpur Sahib, he too
began living here; hence this was the residence of Guru Sahib and their
families between 1635 and 1663. Guru Har Ral Sahib and Guru Harkrishan
Sahib were born here. Ram Ral and Bibi Rup Kaur (son and daughter of
Guru Har Rai Sahib) were also born here.
GURDWARA TAKHT SAHIB
After establishing his headquarters at Keeratpur Sahib, Guru Hargobind
Sahib constructed a structure of throne, here, to perform the activities
of Akal Takht Sahib from here. Later, a fort was built around the throne.
Guru Sahib used to hold his court here. The installation ceremonies
of Guru Har Rai Sahib and Guru Harkrishan Sahib were also held here.
GURDWARA DAMDAMA SAHIB
Here Guru Sahib used to hold congregations. A langar (sacred kitchen)
was also attached to it. It was also known as Diwan-J-Aam.
GURDWARA HARMANDIR SAHIB
Here Guru Hargobind Sahib had set up a garden. There were several fountains
on all the sides of the garden. Fruits and herbs of several types had
been grown by Guru Sahib in this garden. According to a tradition, once
when Dara Shikoh, the brother of Aurangzeb visited Guru Sahib, he rested
in this garden. Guru Sahib gave him a herb which gave him relief from
a chronic problem
GURDWARA CHUBACHCHA SAHIB
This is a small building now. Here, Guru Har Rai Sahib had built a Chubachcha
(reservoir) for horses. Guru Sahib had about 2200 horses, a couple of
elephants and a large number of cows, goats and buffaloes, The fodder
for these animals used to be stored here.
GURDWARA MANJI SAHIB
This was the residence of Bibi Rup Kaur (daughter of Guru Har Rai Sahib).
She was married to Bhai Khem Karan of Pasrur (district Sialkot), on
November 4,1662. She spent rest of her life at Kalyanpur (now a part
of Keeratpur Sahib). In this Gurdwara some relics belonging to Bibi
Rup Kaur have been preserved. These are: an embroidered handkerchief,
a hand-fan, a volume of hymms and a Seli-topi (a sort of cap). The last
one belonged to Baba Sri Chand who had gifted the same to Baba Gurditta
(grandfather of Bibi Rup Kaur) and Bibi Rup Kaur had received it as
a gift from her grandmother.
GURDWARA TIR SAHIB
According to a tradition once Guru Hargobind Sahib shot an arrow from
this site. The arrow fell near the present-day building of Gurdwara
This shrine has been built on the bank of the river. Guru Hargobind
Sahib and Guru Har Ral Sahib were cremated here. The ashes of Guru Harkrishan
Sahib, who had breathed his last at Delhi on March 30,1644, had also
been immersed here. This was in fact a cremation ground for all the
residents of Keeratpur Sahib
Bhal Jaita, Bhai Ude and Blial Nanu Ram while carrying the head of Guru
Tegh Bahadur Sahib from Delhi, stopped here. From here to Chakk Nanaki
in a procession. The next day, on November 17,1665 the head was cremated
at Chakk Nanaki.
GURDWARA BABA GURDITTA
This Gurdwara has been built in memory of Baba Gurditta (son of Guru
Hargobind Sahib) and Baba Sri Chand. It stands on the top of a hill,
about one km from the town. Baba Gurditta breathed his last at this
GURDWARA JINDBARI SAHIB
This Guadwara has been built in memory of Baba Gurditta in a village
named Jindbari (about 2 Km from village Dher, on Anandpur-Nmigal mad).
A hagiographic story about Baba Gurditta giving life to a dead cow is
associated with this village.
Gurdwaras in between Keeratpur Sahib and Anandpur Sahib
This Gurdwara has been built in memory of Guru Har Ral Sahib. According
to a tradition Guru Sahib used to tie his elephant with a dry stem of
a barota (bunyan tree), hence the name. According to a tradition Guru
Gobind Singh Sahib also visited this village. Gurdwara Barota Sahib
is in Bhakola village, about 2 km from Keeratpur Sahib.
This Gurdwara has been built in village Mitthasar (near village Kotla,
at a distance of about 3 km from Keeratpur Sahib and about six km from
Anandpur Sahib). According to a tradition Guru Hargobind Sahib used
to visit this village. He had got built a well in this village. The
water of this village was very sweet, hence the name of the Gurdwara.
Bhogpura village is at a distance of about 4 km from Anandpur Sahib.
A Gurdwara has been built here in memory of the visit of Guru Gobind
Gurdwaras associated with Guru Sahib's stay at Anandpur Sahib
Village Nirmohgarh (also known as Hardo-Nirmoh) is at a distance of
about 2 km from Keeratpur Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib stayed here
for 11 days (October 4 to 14, 1700). On August 29,1700 Ajmer Chand,
the ruler of Bilaspur, attacked Anandpur Sahib. The invasion continued
for four days. Ajmer Chand's army suffered heavy losses. On September
1,1700, Raja Kesral Chand, maternal uncle of Ajmer Chand was also killed.
When Ajmer Chand's army returned to Bilaspur, the people began chiding
them. At this Parma Nand, the prime minister of Ajmer Chand, chalked
out a plan. He made a statue of 'Cow' and placed it outside the gate
of Anandgarh fort along with a letter praying Guru Sahib to abandon
Anandpur Sahib for a couple of days so that they might boast of occupying
Anandpur Sahib just to regain respect among the residents of Bilaspur.
In the letter Ajmer Chand had sworn by cow (cow is sacred to Hindus)
that he will never attack Anandpur Sahib again. Guru Sahib knew how
ungrateflil Ajmer Chand was, still he took mercy on him and abandoned
Anandpur Sahib. Guru Sahib set up tents on the top of a hill in the
outskirts of the village of Nirmohgarh. When Ajmer Chand came to know
that Guru Sahib had left Anaadpur Sahib and moved to Ninnohgarh, he
planned an attack on Nirmohgarh also. On October 8,1700 he attacked
Nirmohgarb but suffered heavy losses. Then he approached the governor
of Sirhind. The governor of Sirhind sent a unit of army under the leadership
of Rustn Khan and Nahar Khan. A fierce battle was fought here on October
13. In this battle both the Khans were killed. On October 14, Ajmer
Chand launched another attack This also resulted into the defeat of
Ajmer Chand's army. On October 15, Raja Salahi Chand, the ruler of Basali,
approached Guru Sahib and escorted him to Basali (about 14 km from Keeratpur
Sahib). By 1970 there was no Gurdwara at Nirmohgarh. Now, a Gurdwara
is under construction.
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib spent fifteen days (October 15 to 29,1700) at
Basali. A Gurdwara, in the bungalow of the chief of Basali, had been
built to preserve memory of the visit of Guru Sahib. But, now, this
Gurdwara does not exist any more. With an end to the direct line of
Raja Salahi Chand (who had invited Guru Sahib to his State), the residence
of the chief of Basali was occupied by some persons. At this tinie (in
1999) even the memorial of Raja Salahi Chand is in dilapidated conditions.
Now, the Sikhs have built another Gurdwara in the outskirts of Basali.
Effbrts are being made to recover the building of the old Gurdwara.
Basali is about 14 km crow's-flight from Keeratpur Sahib. One can reach
Basali via Nurpur Bedi (6 km) by road.
During his stay at Basali, on October 20,1700, Guru Sahib went out for
hunting. During the chase, the Sikhs shot at and wounded a wolf. The
Sikhs chased the wounded wolf through the hills. When they reached near
the village of Kalmot a skirmish took place during which Bhai Jiwan
Singh was killed. A Gurdwara had been built here to preserve memory
of the visit of Guru Sahib. Later, a new building was erected in place
of the eighteenth century memorial. The present building was built in
1960. Kalmot, also famous as Khera-Kalmot, is about 14 km crow's flight
from Anandpur Sahib. It is about 25 km from Basali by road.
Bajrur finds mention in the Sikh history becaese, on March 14,1701,
the residents of this village waylaid a group of Sikhs who were on their
way to Anandpur Sahib. The next day Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Bhai Udey
Singh led a group of 100 Sikhs to this village and punished the robbers.
Chittu and Mittu, the leaders of the robbers, were killed in the operation.
A Gurdwara has been built in memory of the event. Bajrur is about 9
km from Nurpur liedi and about seven km crow's ifight from Anandpur
On March 6,1701 Dewki Das, a Bralunin, visited Anandpur Sahib and made
a petition to Guru Sahib to help him restore his wife whom Jabar Jang
Khan, the chief of Bassi Kalan, had forcibly taken away. The next day
Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Bhai Udey Singh led a group of about one hundred
Sikks to the village of Bassi Kalan, arrested Jabar Jang Ktian and restored
the wife of the Brahmin. A Gurdwara has been built to preserve memory
of the event. Bassi Kalan is about 12 km from Hoshiarpur
Gurdwaras which are far away from Anandpur Sahib
the above mentioned towns and villages, Guru Sahib visited several other
places also which are far away from Anandpur Sahib. These include Bilaspur,
Rivalsar, Itrmandal, Jammu, Chakk Kanha, Ramgarh, Knirarhi, Samba, Pathankot,
Hoshiarpur, Nahan, Paonta, Bhangani, Nadaun etc. The last two places
are associated with battles. Gurdwaras have been built at Bilaspur,
Rivalsar, Nahan, Paonta, Bhangani, Nadaun etc. But, so far, no shrine
has been built at Purmandal, Jammu, Chakk Kanha, Ramgarh, Khirathhi,
Samba, Pathankot and Hoshiarpur.
Bilaspur is about 60 km from Keeratpur Sahib. It was the capital of
the erstwhile Bilaspur/Kehiur State. Bilaspur-Slidi relationship began
in 1613 when Kalyan Chand, the ruler of Bilaspur and his son Thra Chand
met Guru Har~obind Sahib in Gwalior Fort prison. Guru Sahib helped the
release of Kalyan Chand, his son 'Thra Chand and several other rulers
of the Indian States from Gwaiiorp(ison, on October26, 1619. In 1635,
Guru Hargobind Sahib established his headquarters at leeeratpur Sahib
(which had been founded in 1624 on the land purchased by Guru Sahib
from Raja Kalyan Chand). Though there is no reference in any source,
yet it seems that Guru Hargobind Sahib must have visited Bilaspur. Guru
Tegh Bahadur Sahib visited Bilaspur in 1665 and 1672. Guru Gobind Singh
Sahib visited Bilaspur at least thrice.
Gurdwara, to commemorate the visit of Guru Sahib had been built in the
royal palace. The Sikhs had been visiting this shrine till I 850s. Later,
the Bilaspur ruler stopped the Sikh from entering the shrine. In 1950s,
Bilaspur city became a part of "Gobind Sagar Lake" and a new
town was set up in the upper hills. The Sikhs too built a new shrine
in the new Bilaspur.
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib visited Rivalsar on March 28,1692 to preside
over a conference of the rulers of the hill States. In this conference
Guru Sahib agreed to grant "pr6tectorate" to the hill rulers
against the Mughal invasions. A Gurdwara has been built to preserve
memory of the visit of Guru Sahib. The Hindu residents of this town
are hostile to the Sikhs (and the other non-Hindus).
In March 1690 Guru Sahib led Sikh army to Nadaun to help Raja Bhim Chand
of Bilaspur and other hill rulers against the Mugal attacIL The battle,
fought on March 20,1690, was won by Guru Sahib and his allies. After
the battle, Guru Sahib spent seven days in the palace of the chief of
Nadaun. A Gurdwara has been built at Nadaun to preserve memory of the
visit of Guru Sahib. Nadaun is about 32 km from Kangra and about 12
km from Jawalamukhi.
PAONTA SAHIB AND BHANGANI
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib visited Nahan on AppI 14,1685. He founded the
town of Paonta Sahib and stayed there.from April 29,1685 to October
27,1688. During this period he had to fight a battle against the invading
army of Fateb Shah of Gartiwal, on September 18,1688, at Bhangani (about
11 km from Paonta). Gurdwaras to commemorate the association of Guru
Sahib to these places have been built at Nahan (2 Gurdwaras), Bhangani
(2 Gurdwaras) and Paonta Sahib (3 Gurdwaras).
on the route of the last jouniey of Guru Gobind Singh Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh Sahib left Anandpur Sahib for ever on the night of
December 5 and 6 1705. He went through Keeratpur Sahib, Jhakhian village,
Shahi Tibbi before he could cross rivulet Sarsa at Nangal Gujjran (now
Nangal Sarsa). From here he went to Kotla Nihang, Chamkaur, Machhiwara
and then to Talwandi Sabo via Ajner, Doraha, Dina-Kangar, Bhagta, Kotkapura,
Dhilwan, Khidrane Di Dhab (Muktsar) etc. Gurdwaras have been built at
most of these pJaces. Besides this route, Guniwaras have been built
at Bibhaur (about one and half km from Nangal and 23 km from Anandpur
Sahib), Baangarh (Nurpur Bedi,) Katta Sabur, Gwpalah etc. According
to a source Guru Sahib had composed his famous hymn "Chaupai"
Thus, the whole of this area is a zone of the shrines associated with